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The Marketing Scales Handbooks

Volume 1 Table of Contents*

Below is a listing of the scales reviewed in Volume 1 of the Marketing Scales Handbook. Please note there are several instances of entries with the same title (e.g., #24 & #25, #81 & #82). These represent distinctly different measures of the same construct. In contrast, usage of the same or similar measures in different studies have been reviewed together.

Consumer Behavior scales

  1. Activity (Stimulus)
  2. Affect (General)
  3. Affect (Music)
  4. Age-Related Responsibility (Child)
  5. Aggressiveness (Consumer)
  6. Aggressiveness (General)
  7. Appropriateness (Object)
  8. Arousal
  9. Arousal-Seeking Tendency
  10. Arts Enthusiast
  11. Assertiveness (Consumer)
  12. Assertiveness (General)
  13. Attitude Toward Branded Products
  14. Attitude Toward Business
  15. Attitude Toward Business Ethics
  16. Attitude Toward Buying American-Made Products
  17. Attitude Toward Computer Technology
  18. Attitude Toward Humor
  19. Attitude Toward Pricing Practices
  20. Attitude Toward Salespeople
  21. Attitude Toward Shampoo
  22. Attitude Toward Soft Drink Consumption
  23. Attitude Toward the Act (Getting Flu Shot)
  24. Attitude Toward the Act (Likert)
  25. Attitude Toward the Act (Likert)
  26. Attitude Toward the Act (Reuse Salesperson)
  27. Attitude Toward the Act (Semantic Differential)
  28. Attitude Toward the Offer
  29. Attitude Toward the Product
  30. Attitude Toward the Product/Brand (Likert)
  31. Attitude Toward the Product/Brand (Semantic Differential)
  32. Attitude Toward the Product Price
  33. Attitude Toward the Product Retail Placement
  34. Attitude Toward the Purchase (Feeling Dimension)
  35. Attitude Toward the Purchase (Thinking Dimension)
  36. Attribute Importance
  37. Atribute Variability
  38. Brand Differentiation (Cameras)
  39. Brand Loyalty (Soft Drink)
  40. Brand Name Appropriateness
  41. Brand Similarity
  42. Brand Switcher
  43. Brand Variability (Cameras)
  44. Choice Independence (Child)
  45. Clothing Interest
  46. Communication Avoidance (Parent/Child)
  47. Communication Encouragement (Parent/Child)
  48. Community Mindedness
  49. Comparison Shopping
  50. Complaining Acceptabiliity
  51. Complaint Responsiveness
  52. Complexity (Stimulus)
  53. Compliance (Physician's Advice)
  54. Compliance Motivation
  55. Compulsivity (General)
  56. Compulsivity (Purchase)
  57. Conformity (Dress)
  58. Conformity Motivation
  59. Consequences (Physician's Treatment)
  60. Conservatism Politicoeconomic)
  61. Consumer Affairs Knowledge
  62. Consumer Role Expectations (Adolescents')
  63. Consumption Motivation (Objective)
  64. Consumption Motivation (Social)
  65. Contact Frequency (Sales Agent)
  66. Convenience (Location Products Within Store)
  67. Convenience (Movement in Store)
  68. Convenience (Shopping)
  69. Convenience (Shopping Ease)
  70. Convenience (Store Features)
  71. Convenience (Within Store)
  72. Cooking Enjoyment
  73. Coping (Life)
  74. Coviewing TV (Parent/Child)
  75. Creativity (Product Usage)
  76. Credit Usage
  77. Curiosity (Product Operation)
  78. Cynicism (Political)
  79. Dieter
  80. Discomfirmation
  81. Dogmatism
  82. Dogmatism
  83. Dominance
  84. Energy Consciousness
  85. Envy
  86. Ethnocentrism (CETSCALE)
  87. Exchange Equity (Customer's With Dealer)
  88. Exchange Equity (Customer's With Salesperson)
  89. Exchange Inputs (Customer's With Dealer)
  90. Exchange Inputs (Customer's With Salesperson)
  91. Exchange Inputs (Dealer's With Customer)
  92. Exchange Inputs (Salesperson's With Customer)
  93. Exchange Outcomes (Customer's With Dealer)
  94. Exchange Outcomes (Customer's With Salesperson)
  95. Exchange Outcomes (Dealer's With Customer)
  96. Exchange Outcomes (Salesperson's With Customer)
  97. Exploratory Shopper
  98. Expressiveness (Stimulus)
  99. Fairness (Dealer's Treatment of Customer)
  100. Fairness (Salesperson's Treatment of Customer)
  101. Familiarity (Generalized)
  102. Familiarity (Object)
  103. Fantasizing
  104. Fasion Consciousness
  105. Femininity
  106. Financial Concern
  107. Freedom
  108. Futility (Political)
  109. Generosity
  110. Healthiness
  111. Healthiness
  112. Health/Safety Concern
  113. Hemispheric Orientation
  114. Homebody
  115. Homebody
  116. Household Chore Expectations (Parent/Child)
  117. Housework Hater
  118. Imagery Vividness
  119. Inflation Consciousness
  120. Information Seeker (Interpersonal)
  121. Information Seeker (Interpersonal )
  122. Information Usage (Company Sources)
  123. Information Usage (Personal Sources)
  124. In-Home Shopper
  125. Innovativeness (Brand)
  126. Innovativeness (Fashion)
  127. Innovativeness (Fasion)
  128. Innovativeness (Open Processing)
  129. Innovativeness (Product)
  130. Innovativeness (Shopping)
  131. Innovativeness (Shopping)
  132. In-Shopping Preference
  133. In-Shopping Preference
  134. Interaction-Orientation of Salesperson (Customer's Perception)
  135. Interpesonal Influence Susceptibility (Normative)
  136. Involvement (Activity)
  137. Involvement (Body Weight)
  138. Involvement (Enduring)
  139. Involvement (Enduring)
  140. Involvement (Product)
  141. Involvement (Product)
  142. Involvement (Purchase Decision)
  143. Involvement (Response)
  144. Involvement (Shopping)
  145. Involvement (Situational)
  146. Involvement (Store)
  147. Involvement (Television)
  148. Involvement With Education (Enduring)
  149. Involvement With Education (Response)
  150. Involvement With Education (Situational)
  151. Likelihood of Eating (Specified Food)
  152. Locus of Control
  153. Loyalty Proneness (Product)
  154. Market Maven
  155. Masculinity
  156. Mastery (Situation)
  157. Materialism
  158. Materialism
  159. Mood
  160. Motivation to Engage in Activities (Intrinsic/Extrinsic)
  161. Multi-Store Shopper
  162. Novelty (Activity)
  163. Novelty (Stimulus)
  164. Nurturance (Parental)
  165. Nutritional Knowledge
  166. Nutritional Phraseology Understanding
  167. Obedience Expectation for Kids at School
  168. Opinion Leadership (Fashion)
  169. Opinion Leadership (Fasion)
  170. Opinion Leadership (Generalized)
  171. Opinion Leadership (Generalized)
  172. Opinion Leadership (Generalized)
  173. Opinion Leadership (Purchase)
  174. Opinion Leadership (Shopping)
  175. Optimism (Financial)
  176. Parental Ethnocentrism
  177. Parental Style (Authoritarian)
  178. Parental Style (Concept-Orientation)
  179. Parental Style (Firm)
  180. Parental Style (Protective)
  181. Parental Style (Socio-Orientation)
  182. Parental Style (Strick)
  183. Patriotism
  184. Personalizing Shopper
  185. Personalizing Shopper
  186. Pleasure
  187. Possessiveness
  188. Potency (Stimulus)
  189. Powerlessness (Consumer)
  190. Price Consciousness
  191. Price Consciousness
  192. Price-Quality Inference (Running Shoes)
  193. Pricing Issues (Air Travel)
  194. Problem Recognition Style (Clothing)
  195. Product Aesthetics
  196. Product Knowledge
  197. Product Performance Evaluation (Radio)
  198. Product Performance Evaluation (Soft Drink)
  199. Product-Price Relationship
  200. Product Puerchase Influence (Child's)
  201. Purchase Expectations (Adolescents')
  202. Purchase Independence (Child)
  203. Purchase-Related Communication (Child's View)
  204. Purchase-Related Communication (Parent's View)
  205. Quality (Product)
  206. Quality (Product)
  207. Quality (Store's Products)
  208. Quantity of Consumption (Soft Drink)
  209. Rationality (Object)
  210. Reader
  211. Rebates (Negative Role)
  212. Rebates (Negative Role)
  213. Rebates (Positive Role)
  214. Refusal of Child's Purchase Requests (With Explanation)
  215. Refusal of Child's Purchase Requests (Without Explanation)
  216. Regulation of Business
  217. Respect Toward Elderly
  218. Restricted Mobility
  219. Restriction of TV Viewing
  220. Risk (Financial)
  221. Risk (Performance)
  222. Risk Aversion (Product Usage)
  223. Risk Taker (Purchase)
  224. Role Overload
  225. Romanticism/Classicism
  226. Safety (Air Travel)
  227. Satisfaction (Air Travel)
  228. Satisfaction (Car)
  229. Satisfaction (Coercive Power Behavior)
  230. Satisfaction (Expert-Legitimate Powser Behavior)
  231. Satisfaction (Financial)
  232. Satisfaction (Flu Shot Decision)
  233. Satisfaction (Generalized)
  234. Satisfaction (Generalized)
  235. Satisfaction (Intrinsic)
  236. Satisfaction (Life)
  237. Satisfaction (Purchases in General)
  238. Satisfaction (Referent Power Behavior)
  239. Satisfaction (With Retailers)
  240. Self-Concept
  241. Self-Confidence (Generalized)
  242. Self-Confidence (Generalized)
  243. Self-Confidence (Non-prescription Drug Purchase)
  244. Self-Confidence (Shopping)
  245. Self-Esteem
  246. Self-Esteem
  247. Self-Esteem
  248. Self-Orientation of Salesperson (Customer's Perception)
  249. Service Failure by Company
  250. Service Failure by Sales Agent
  251. Shop With Children
  252. Shopping Conditions (Local)
  253. Shopping Enjoyment
  254. Shopping Guilt
  255. Shopping Mall Usage
  256. Shopping Prone
  257. Shopping Responsibility (Wife)
  258. Social Desirability Bias (Marlowe-Crowne)
  259. Source Pressuring
  260. Spontaneity
  261. Sports Activeness
  262. Sports Enthusiasm
  263. Store Familiarity Importance
  264. Store Image
  265. Store Pricing Importance
  266. Subjective Norms (Soft Drink)
  267. Task-Orientation of Salesperson (Customer's Perception)
  268. Time Management
  269. Time Pressure
  270. Time Pressure
  271. Value (Object)
  272. Value (Offer)
  273. Value (Offer)
  274. Venturesomeness
  275. Verbal/Visual Processing Style)
  276. Visual Imagery Control
  277. Volunteerism (Benefits)
  278. Volunteerism (Family/Job Constraints)
  279. Volunteerism (Willingness)
  280. Weight Control
  281. Word Evaluation
  282. Workaholic
  283. Yielding to Child's Request

Advertising-Related scales

  1. Ad Distraction
  2. Ad Humor
  3. Ad Information Usage
  4. Ad Irritation
  5. Advertising Concerns (Parent)
  6. Advertising Expenditures (Bank)
  7. Advertising-Related Discussions (Parent-Child)
  8. Attention to Ad
  9. Attitude Toward Advertising
  10. Attitude Toward Advertising
  11. Attitude Toward Advertising (Semantic Differential)
  12. Attitude Toward Advertising by Professionals
  13. Attitude Toward Advertising by Professionals
  14. Attitude Toward the Ad
  15. Attitude Toward the Ad (Activity Judgments)
  16. Attitude Toward the Ad (Brand Reinforcement)
  17. Attitude Toward the Ad (Confusion)
  18. Attitude Toward the Ad (Entertainment)
  19. Attitude Toward the Ad (Evaluation Judgments)
  20. Attitude Toward the Ad (Familiarity)
  21. Attitude Toward the Ad (Gentleness Judgments)
  22. Attitude Toward the Ad (Insulting)
  23. Attitude Toward the Ad (Negative Feelings)
  24. Attitude Toward the Ad (Relevance)
  25. Attitude Toward the Ad (Relevant News)
  26. Attitude Toward the Ad (Semantic Differential)
  27. Attitude Toward the Ad (Upbeat Feelings)
  28. Attitude Toward the Ad (Warm Feelings)
  29. Attitude Toward the Advertiser (Semantic Differential)
  30. Attitude Toward TV Advertising
  31. Complexity (Ad)
  32. Complexity (Stimulus)
  33. Credibility (Source)
  34. Exposure to Company Advertising (Customer
  35. Information Adequacy (Consumer)
  36. Information Seeker
  37. Information Source Usage
  38. Interest (Commercial)
  39. Involvement (Ad)
  40. Media Usage (Insurance Company)
  41. Novelty (Ad)
  42. Sales Advertising Watcher

Organizational Behavior scales

  1. Acceptance by Coworkers
  2. Acceptance of Authority
  3. Account Service Activity (Salesperson)
  4. Achievement-Oriented Supervisory Behavior
  5. Adoption Costs (Customer)
  6. Adoption of the Extended Marketing Concept
  7. Alienation from Work
  8. Alternative Offerings (Industrial Sales)
  9. Attitude Toward The Manufacturer (Dealer)
  10. Attributional Style (Sales Effort)
  11. Attributional Style (Sales Strategy)
  12. Autocratic Supervisory Behavior
  13. Autonomy (Job Performance)
  14. Barriers to Entry
  15. Barriers to Exit
  16. Centralization (Agent/Client Relationship)
  17. Centralization (Buying Group Structure)
  18. Centralization (Channel Relationship)
  19. Centralization (Channel Relationship)
  20. Centralization (Retailer With Wolesaler)
  21. Centralization (Salesforce Decisions)
  22. Centralization (Vertical Control)
  23. Centralization (Wholesaler With Retailer)
  24. Channel Conflict (Administrative)
  25. Channel Conflict (Dealer With Manufacturer)
  26. Channel Conflict (Service)
  27. Channel Member Control
  28. Commitment (Organizational)
  29. Commitment (Organizational)
  30. Company Resource Sharing
  31. Competitive Environment
  32. Competitive Retaliation
  33. Competence (Task-Specific for Insurance Agent)
  34. Competitive Intensity
  35. Competitive Strength
  36. Confidence in jWork
  37. Confirmation of Expectations (Distributor)
  38. Conflict Frequency (Channel)
  39. Conflict Importance (Channel)
  40. Conflict Intensity (Channel)
  41. Conflict Intensity (Generalized)
  42. Conflicts at Work
  43. Consideration (Channel Relationship)
  44. Consideration (Leadership Style)
  45. Consideration (Leadership Style)
  46. Consideration of Alternatives (Industrial Buying)
  47. Contingent Approving Supervisory Behavior
  48. Cooperation (Buying Center Members)
  49. Customer Orientation (SOCO)
  50. Customer Service Support for Employees (Bank)
  51. Decision-Making Uncertainty (Retailer)
  52. Directive (Channel Relationship)
  53. Distributor Interaction (Salesperson)
  54. Domain Consensus (Retailer With Wholesaler)
  55. Domain Consensus (Wholesaler With Retailer)
  56. Dysfunctional Behavior (Employee)
  57. Employee Coordination (Sales/Nonsales)
  58. Employee Screening (Bank)
  59. Entertaining Clients (Salesperson)
  60. Environmental Capacity
  61. Environmental Concentration
  62. Environmental Conflict (Abnormal Competitive Severity)
  63. Environmental Conflict (Unfair Trade Practices)
  64. Environmental Diversity (Individual Customers)
  65. Environmental Diversity (Organizational Customers)
  66. Environmental Dynamism (Competitor Dynamism)
  67. Environmental Dynamism (Customer Dynamism)
  68. Environmental Dynamism (Marketing Practices)
  69. Environmental Forces (Demand & Competition)
  70. Environmental Forces (Regulation & Technology)
  71. Environmental Interconnectedness (Common Input Linkages)
  72. Environmental Interconnectedness (Common Output Linkages)
  73. Environmental Interdependence
  74. Environmental Uncertainty (Buying Group Decisions)
  75. Environmental Uncertainty (Complexity)
  76. Environmental Uncertainty (Dynamism)
  77. Environmental Uncertainty (Market)
  78. Ethical Behavior (Management's Emphasis)
  79. Ethical Behavior (Research Activity)
  80. Ethical Problems
  81. Familiarity With Others (Buying Center Members)
  82. Feedback From Others in Company
  83. Feedback From Superiors)
  84. Financial Performance (Organizational)
  85. Formality of Product Elimination Decision
  86. Formalization (Buying Group Structure)
  87. Formalization (Channel Relationship)
  88. Formalization (Channel Relationship)
  89. Formalization (Organizational)
  90. Formalization (Organizational)
  91. Formalization (Retailer With Wholesaler)
  92. Formalization (Vertical Control)
  93. Formalization (Wholesaler With Retailer)
  94. Goal Acceptance
  95. Goal Clarity
  96. Goal Compatibility (Retailer With Wholesaler)
  97. Goal Compatibility (Wholesaler With Retailer)
  98. Goal Difficulty
  99. Influence (Buying Center Member Self-Perception)
  100. Influence Attempts (Buying Center Member)
  101. Influence On Decision-Making Unit
  102. Influence Over Work
  103. Information Management Activity (Salesperson)
  104. Initiation of Structure (Leadership Style)
  105. Initiation of Structuer (Leadership Style)
  106. Initiation of Structure (Leadership Style)
  107. Interaction (Retailer With Wolesaler)
  108. Interaction (Wholesaler With Retailer)
  109. Interaction-Orientation of Customer (Salesperson's Perception)
  110. Involvement (Job)
  111. Job Challenge (Salesperson)
  112. Job Description Index (JDI)
  113. Job Expectations (Realistic)
  114. Job Instrumentality (Salesperson)
  115. Job Structure
  116. Job Suitability
  117. Job Tension
  118. Job Variety
  119. Locus of Control
  120. Machiavellianism (Mach IV)
  121. Manifest Influence of Buying Center Members
  122. Manifest Influence of Others in Organization
  123. Market Attractiveness
  124. Market Power of Customer (Knowledge)
  125. Market Power of Customer (Size)
  126. Market Power of Customer (Switching Costs)
  127. Market Power of Manufacturer (Industry Concentration)
  128. Market Power of Manufacturer (Nature of Competition)
  129. Market Researching Frequency (Bank)
  130. Meeting-Related Activity (Salesperson
  131. Motivation to Work (Generalized)
  132. Motivation to Work Harder
  133. Motivation to Work Smarter
  134. Munificence (Car Dealer)
  135. Negotiation Skill
  136. Opportunism (Dealer With Manufacturer)
  137. Order Processing Activity (Salesperson)
  138. Pariticpation (Buying Group Structure)
  139. Participation (Channel Relationship)
  140. Participation (Channel Relationship)
  141. Participation (Channel Relationship)
  142. Participation (Leadership Style)
  143. Participation (Leadership Style)
  144. Participation in Decision-Making Unit
  145. Performance Control Sensitivity (Branch Manager)
  146. Performance Control Sensitivity (Salesforce)
  147. Performance Documentation
  148. Performance Evaluation (East of Assessment)
  149. Performance Evaluation (Retailer With Wholesaler)
  150. Performance Evaluation (Wholesaler With Retailer)
  151. Performance Expectations (Salesperson)
  152. Performance Expectations (Salesperson)
  153. Performance Sensitivity (Job)
  154. Political Meetings Frequency (Bank)
  155. Power (Coercive)
  156. Power (Coercive)
  157. Power (Departmental)
  158. Power (Exercises Coercive)
  159. Power (Exercised Reward)
  160. Power (Expert)
  161. Power (Expert)
  162. Power (Expert)
  163. Power (Expert)
  164. Power (Informal Legitimate)
  165. Power (Information)
  166. Power (Legitimate)
  167. Power (Legitimate)
  168. Power (Referent)
  169. Power (Referent)
  170. Power (Referent)
  171. Power (Reinforcement)
  172. Power (Reward)
  173. Power (Reward)
  174. Power of Distributor (Exercised)
  175. Power of Manufacturer
  176. Power of Supplier
  177. Pricing Analysis Frequency (Bank)
  178. Procedural Knoweldge
  179. Product Complexity
  180. Product Complexity
  181. Product/Component Uniqueness
  182. Product Line Sophistication (Industrial Buying)
  183. Product Preannouncement (Cannibalization Concerns)
  184. Product Preannouncement (Competitive Concerns)
  185. Product Preannouncement (Distribution Reasons)
  186. Product Preannouncement (Image Reasons)
  187. Product Preannouncement (Legal Concerns)
  188. Product Preannouncement (Promotional Reasons)
  189. Product Preannouncement (Risks)
  190. Product Service Activity (Salesperson)
  191. Product Understanding
  192. Professionalism (Autonomy)
  193. Professionalism (Autonomy)
  194. Professionalism (Client-Orientation)
  195. Professionalism (Collegial Maintenance)
  196. Professionalism (Commitment)
  197. Professionalism (Identification)
  198. Professionalism (Sense of Calling to the Field)
  199. Professionalism (Self-Regulation)
  200. Professionalism (Service to the Public
  201. Purchase Complexity
  202. Purchase Importance
  203. Purchase Importance
  204. Purchase Inexperience
  205. Purchase Task Familiarity (Industrial Buying
  206. Recruiting/Training Activity (Salesperson)
  207. Replaceability of Income From Principal (Agency)
  208. Replaceability of Salespeople)
  209. Role Ambiguity (Salesperson & Product Manager)
  210. Role Autonomy (Job-Related)
  211. Role Clarity (Salesperson)
  212. Role Clarity (Salesperson)
  213. Role Clarity (Salesperson)
  214. Role Conflict (Salesperson & Product Manager)
  215. Role Conflict (Work-Nonwork)
  216. Role Definition (Salesperson)
  217. Role Performance
  218. Sales Constraints
  219. Sample Representativeness Evaluation
  220. Sample Size Evaluation
  221. Satisfaction (Dealer With Manufacturer)
  222. Satisfaction (Dealer With Manufacturer)
  223. Satisfaction (Franchisee)
  224. Satisfaction With Job (Composite Index)
  225. Satisfaction With Job (Extrinsic)
  226. Satisfaction With Job Extrinsic)
  227. Satisfaction With Job (Extrinsic)
  228. Satisfaction With Job (Generalized)
  229. Satisfaction With Job (Generalized)
  230. Satisfaction With Job (Intrinsic)
  231. Satisfaction With Job (Intrinsic)
  232. Satisfaction With Job (Intrinsic)
  233. Satisfaction With Supervisor
  234. Self-Esteem (Task-Specific for Salesperson)
  235. Self-Monitoring
  236. Self-Orientation of Customer (Salesperson's Perception)
  237. Selling Activity
  238. Selling Task Complexity (Industrial Selling)
  239. Specialization (Channel Relationship)
  240. Study Quality Evaluation
  241. Supportive (Channel Relationship)
  242. Task Completion
  243. Task-Orientation of Customer (Salesperson's Perception)
  244. Task Significance/Autonomy
  245. Time Pressure (Buying Center Members)
  246. Trade Show Performance (Nonselling)
  247. Trade Show Performance (Selling)
  248. Transaction Asset Specificity (Agency With Accounts)
  249. Transaction Asset Specificity (Agency With Principal)
  250. Transaction Asset Specificity (Firm With Salesperson)
  251. Transaction Asset Specificity (Generalized)
  252. Travel Activity (Salesperson)
  253. Trust (Deader With Manufacturer)
  254. Trust (Retailer With Wholesaler)
  255. Trust (Wholesaler With Retailer)
  256. Upward-Influencing Supervisory Behavior
  257. Work Controls (Output)
  258. Work Controls (Procedures)
  259. Work Controls (Process)
  260. Work Controls (Professional)
  261. Work Controls (Self)
  262. Work Effort
  263. Work Evaluation Congruence

* This volume is no longer available as a separate book. However, most of the content related to scales for use with consumers is in the Marketing Scales database and merged with more recent material.