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Volume 9 of the Marketing Scales Handbook series has been published! The book has reviews of 433 multi-item scales used in scholarly consumer research, more than any book since Volume 6 of the series. In terms of coverage, there are scales related to typical topics such as brands, advertising, stores, purchasing, and pricing. Additionally, there are new scales for some "smaller" topics that were less covered (if at all) in the previous books of the series such as environmentalism, service dominant orientations, symbolic embeddedness, word-of-mouth activity, switching costs, product installations, place attachment, interactions with employees, and sports. Read more about the book and download the sample that has the Table of Contents and examples of some reviews.
Scale-related Pet-Peeves Blog
If a consumer says she is willing to buy a product, is that an expression of purchase intention? If a researcher uses a multi-item scale that includes items such as I like the product and I want to buy the product, is that a measure of purchase intention? If a marketer wants to estimate demand for a product concept that might be produced in the future, is a purchase intention scale the proper measure to use? My answer to these questions is NO! For my reasons, read my newest pet-peeve blog.
Loosey-Goosey Measurement of Purchase Intention
Two of the most measured constructs in studies of consumers, at least in scholarly research, are Attitude Toward the Brand and Purchase Intention. Those are two very distinct constructs. (A “construct” to those of us in the social sciences is a theoretical variable that can not be directly observed.) A person can have a good attitude about a brand and yet have little or no plan to buy it. In-between those two constructs, however, are several other constructs researchers have said they are meauring but which are not as clearly distinct: Attitude Toward the Act, Willingness to Purchase, and Likelihood of Purchasing. These are used as synonyms for purchase intention by too many researchers but I do not believe they are necessarily the same. My concern is that If you do not know exactly WHAT you are trying to measure then you will not know very well HOW to choose the proper measurement scale!--- more ---
- STOP RECREATING THE WHEEL!!!
- USE THE "RIGHT" NUMBER OF RESPONSE POINTS
- STOP USING LOWER NUMBERS TO MEAN MORE OF SOMETHING!
- IDENTIFY THE SOURCE OF YOUR SCALES!
- DON'T USE REVERSE CODED ITEMS IN SCALES!
- USE THE "RIGHT" NUMBER OF SCALE ITEMS!
- CONFUSING REFLECTIVE AND FORMATIVE SCALES - Part 1
- CONFUSING REFLECTIVE AND FORMATIVE SCALES - Part 2
- CONFUSING REFLECTIVE AND FORMATIVE SCALES - Part 3
- AFFECT IS NOT THE SAME AS ATTITUDE
- ATTITUDE IS NOT THE SAME AS INTENTION OR BEHAVIOR -Part 1
- ATTITUDE IS NOT THE SAME AS INTENTION OR BEHAVIOR -Part 2
- PROVIDE EVIDENCE OF SCALE QUALITY
- DON'T JUST MEASURE HALF OF AN ATTITUDE
- STOP MAKING SCALES FOR THESE CONSTRUCTS!
- OUR LIMITED IMPROVEMENT IN SCALE DEVELOPMENT
- GIVING SCALES "BAD" NAMES
- FAILURE TO CONSIDER ALTERNATIVE MEASURES
- POOR RESPONSE RATES
- CONTINUED MISUSE OF 1-ITEM MEASURES
- SIMPLISTIC METRICS ABUSE
- IGNORING DIMENSIONALITY
- WHEN JOURNALS DON'T ADEQUATELY VET SCALES
- SETTING STANDARDS FOR SCALE USAGE AND REPORTING
- ENGAGEMENT IS NOT SOMETHING NEW
- DECEPTIVE SCALE REPORTING
- POOR CHOICE OF SCALES (SINGLE- vs. MULTI-ITEM)
- QUESTIONABLE SCALE UNIDIMENSIONALITY
- ASSUMPTION OF PERPETUAL VALIDITY
- LOOSEY-GOOSEY MEASUREMENT OF PURCHASE INTENTION